Hamidreza Talebi, linux

tty= teletypewriter

Ctrl+Alt + F1 =tty1
Ctrl+Alt + F2 =tty2

Ctrl+Alt+F7= graphic

Description of Command
$apropos file

See manual
$ man file

where we are?
$ which ls

what is in root
$ ls /

show files in list
$ls -l

show the content of directory
$ls -lR

. current directory
.. parent directory
~ user’s home folder

nano , vim ,vi
$ nano FileName
$ vi FileName
exit : escape :q

To create file
$ touch filename

To see inside file
$ cat filename

To copy
$ cp sourceDirectory Destination
$ cp myfile2 myfile3 Documents // copy to two destinations

To remove file
$ rm myfile

Give list of the files starts with a
$ ls a*


give list of the files starts with three character
$ls ???

link files together
ln users.txt Document/list.txt

find a file larger than 10M
$ find +size +10M

write some text in file
$echo “more information” > output.txt
$ ls > homedir.txt

Use Pipe
$ cat homedir.txt | wc
// count file text

compare files
$diff -y text1.txt text2.txt

$ diff -u text1.txt text2.txt

compare binaries files
$ cmp text1.txt text2.txt

Archives and Compression
$tar -cf doc.tar listoffiles
$tar -tf doc.tar //read
$tar -xf doc.tar extractdistination


Zip file1 file2 …
unzip myfiles.zip -d unzip //create foldername unzip to extract


Find with grep
$ cat users.txt | grep -E “[A-M][m-z]”

change permission
$ chmod 600 myfile
$ chmod ugo+rwx myfile

Hamidreza Talebi- Linux

change currnet user to root user
$sudo -s

$sudo apt install openssh-server

to connect from another system: ssh user@ip

$ get file3
$ put file3

Secure Copy Protocol
remote component user@host:path-to-file
$scp file4 hrt@

Packages update
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

Enable Firewall
ufw enable
ufw allow 22/tcp

Disable Firewall
ufw disable

dd if=source of=destination // copy large – cloning
ps //show process
ps aux | grep “evol”
apt-get install ….

ip address add dev eth0